- interfere with the activation of melanocytes and its crosstalk with keratinocytes (stem cell factor: -61.3%; endothelin-1: -92.7%);
- down-regulate MITF mRNA (-39.0%) to inhibit melanosome formation;
- inhibit melanin-generating enzymes tyrosinase (-79.1%), TRP-1 (-42.1%) and TRP-2 (-91.9%);
- interrupt melanosome transport by reducing carrier protein melanophilin (-69.1%), and
- attenuate phagocytotic ability of keratinocytes to intake melanosomes (-55.1%).
Clinical studies also proved a significant improvement in spot reduction (-41.47%) and skin tone lightening (+28.9%) in just 14 days.